RIWAC Research Institute for Women and Careers JAPAN WOMEN'S UNIVERSITY

Event

【Report】Statistical analysis useful for social surveys: SPSS Workshop

Date  :  6th ,7th,9th,10th February ,2017
Place  :  Japan Women’s University (Mejiro campus)    2-8-1 Mejirodai,Bunkyo-ku,Tokyo
Lecturer  :  Professor Kim Myoungjung

 The Research Institute for Women and Careers has held the “Statistical analysis useful for social surveys: SPSS Workshop” for students and staff of the university every year since 2012. This year, the workshop was held in a computer seminar room with the cooperation of the Media Center. In a series of four successive lectures, Kim Myoungjung of the NLI Research Institute spoke about basic knowledge and the basic operations of SPSS, data processing, cross tabulation, and the basics of statistical analysis (regression analysis). As a new experiment this year, the workshop was divided into an Introductory Segment on February 6th (Mon.) and 7th (Tue.) and a Foundation Segment on the 9th (Thu.) and 10th (Fri.), with each session extended by 30 minutes to enhance the proceedings.

 Judging from responses to a questionnaire survey, the workshop was very well received, with feedback including “The speaker’s explanation was easy to understand, with some parts repeated, and that helped me to understand as the workshop progressed” and “Thanks to the very well-explained handouts, this will also be useful in my future research”.

 Other participants already had a little experience of SPSS operation before attending the workshop. Feedback included comments such as “Because it was divided into an Introductory Segment and a Foundation Segment, I was happy to attend the Foundation Session” and “I was able to understand well, because the explanations of how to establish the null hypothesis and how to verify qualitative and quantitative analysis were repeated.”

 

【Report】Symposium : Changes in the Family and Care in the New Era (Co-hosted by Public Interest Incorporated Foundation The Institute for Research on Household Economics)

Date  :   10th December,2016
Place  :  Shinsenzan-kan    Japan Women’s University (Mejiro campus)    2-8-1 Mejirodai,Bunkyo-ku,Tokyo


 In today’s “super-aged” society, issues revolving around care for family members have become more pronounced, particularly when it comes to long-term care. Just over 15 years have passed since long-term care insurance came into force, and service options have been improved in that time. On the other hand, the very nature of the family and values have become more diverse, and if we consider factors such as women’s advancement in the workplace and the increasing instability of employment, existing systems premised on the provision of care by family members – particularly by women – are becoming obsolete. What we need is a new style of care in response to these changes to the times and society.
 
 To address such issues, this symposium was held with the aim of appraising the present status and problems of care by live-in and other family carers. These issues were approached from multiple perspectives on new formats of care, including care by male carers (musuko kaigo or care by the son of the recipient) and young persons (young carers), or “double care” combining family care and childcare. Another aim was to consider what sort of family support measures will be required, as well as the future of the super-aged society and family care, based on the realities of family care.

Part 1 Keynote Lecture

  Professor Eiko Horikoshi of Japan Women’s University gave a Keynote Lecture on the theme of “Social support for long-term care providers (carers)”. From a position of engagement with both the “Carers Japan” foundation and the certified NPO corporation “Saitama NPO Center”, Professor Horikoshi discussed situations facing carers, along with specific examples of initiatives in support of long-term care. She also presented data to confirm changes in society over the last 50 years or so, explaining that this is an age when anyone can become a giver or a recipient of long-term care. Finally, Professor Horikoshi described the actual circumstances of carers and stressed the importance of carer support.
 
 Next, four panelists presented reports from various angles on the state of care and issues surrounding it, as well as the type of support required for long-term care. The first report, “The burden of live-in family care” by Saeko Kikuzawa of Hosei University, dealt with the state of family care burdens. Based on data from nationwide surveys by the Japanese government and surveys by the Institute for Research on Household Economics, the report stressed the need to promote the socialization of long-term care in response to new family circumstances.

 The second report, “What I observed as a young carer” by Soka City Councilor Daiki Ide, focused on his own long-term care experience from the age of 16. Mr Ide spoke of the reality that young carers remain “invisible” and of his feeling that he would be “left on his own”, as the lack of institutional support meant that he could not engage in school life or job-hunting activity as his friends did.

 The third report, “How to deal with the growing phenomenon of double care?” by Reiko Satsuka of the NPO corporation Yokohama Community Development Research Center, was based on Ms Satsuka’s own experience of combining childcare with family care, as well as the state of support in the community. The report stressed the importance of understanding care cycles, making combined use of public and private services, and avoiding isolation as ways of coping with double care.

 The fourth report, “Maleness and care: Male nursing and how it is viewed” by Ryo Hirayama of the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, was based on the results of an interview survey with men who take care of their parents. Particularly interesting findings were that expectations of long-term carers and of the independence of care recipients differ according to gender; if this is not given sufficient consideration, it leads to gender reproduction.


Part 2
 General Discussion
 
 The General Discussion started with answers to questions from the floor. The panelists gave detailed answers, from their own respective viewpoints, to questions on issues such as the content of training for carer supporters, the Carer Support Bill, ways of increasing participants in carer cafés, and important perspectives when supporting long-term carers.

 Finally, it was confirmed that support of long-term carers is premised on the basic principle that high-quality care is provided to the recipients; it is essential that carers themselves should let others know about problem situations, and there should be a discussion on the economic basis for providing care. In sum, this was a meaningful opportunity to consider care from a variety of angles.

【Report】“Women’s empowerment in Japanese companies”: Empirical analysis on economic policy

Date  :  1st March ,2017
Place  : RIWAC   Japan Women’s University (Mejiro campus)    2-8-1 Mejirodai,Bunkyo-ku,Tokyo
Lecturer  :  Professor Hiromi Ishizuka.

 A comparison with South Korean and Chinese companies and labor markets

 A research meeting was held with Professor Hiromi Ishizuka of Jiyugaoka Sanno College as an invited guest speaker.

 Professor Ishizuka carefully explained work-life situations by gender and job title, analysis of factors behind promotion, and policy issues in Japan, China and South Korea.
 
 This was a very significant research meeting in which challenges for achieving the economic policy of “women’s empowerment” in Japan came into sharp focus, and a lively debate was held on issues including future solutions.

 

【Report】Implications from Ryo Kambayashi and Takao Kato “Good Jobs, Bad Jobs, and the Great Recession: Lessons from Japan’s Lost Decade”

Date  :  27th February ,2017
Place  :  RIWAC    Japan Women’s University (Mejiro campus)    2-8-1 Mejirodai,Bunkyo-ku,Tokyo
Lecturer  :  Professor  Ryo Kambayashi 

 

 A research meeting was held with Professor Ryo Kambayashi of the Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University, as a guest speaker.

 Professor Kambayashi used data to give careful explanations on themes titled “Who does non-regular employment refer to?”, “The background to the increase in non-regular employment” and “Measures to improve treatment in non-regular employment”.

 This was a very useful study meeting, in that it helped us to confirm the definition of non-regular employment, an essential matter when considering women’s careers.

【Report】Ask the Author: Nami Otsuki, Gender Gap in the Workplace: Factors that Hinder Women’s Promotion

Date  :  20th January ,2017
Place  :  RIWAC Japan Women’s University (Mejiro campus)    2-8-1 Mejirodai,Bunkyo-ku,Tokyo
Lecturer  :  Professor Nami Otsuki.

 
 Professor Nami Otsuki of the University of the Sacred Heart, Tokyo, was invited to share the many research results reproduced in her 2015 publication Gender Gap in the Workplace: Factors that Hinder Women’s Promotion, and the knowledge drawn from them. The book examines the issue of how gender gaps in the workplace are created and maintained.

 From Professor Otsuki’s talk, we learned that there is a structure in the workplace that puts women at a disadvantage compared to men, and a mechanism whereby women are excluded from workplaces on premises without clear justification; these then lead to workplace gaps. The talk gave us a better understanding of the fact that introducing wage systems designed to evaluate work performance instead of the ability-based grading system will be an important measure for eliminating gender-based job divisions, along with a re-examination of evaluation standards and other measures.

【Report】Trends in the division of household labor and marital satisfaction: Recent research trends in the USA

Date  :  13th July  ,2016
Place  :  Japan Women’s University (Nishi-ikuta campus)   1-1-1 Nishi-ikuta, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa
Lecturer  :  Professor Yoshinori Kamo (Louisiana State University)

 Professor Yoshinori Kamo, a specialist in family sociology at Louisiana State University, was invited to talk on “Trends in the division of household labor and marital satisfaction: Recent research trends in the USA” at a research meeting held at the Nishi Ikuta Campus.

 As a new experiment, the meeting was shared by video link with the Research Institute for Women and Careers (Mejiro Campus). The lecture included discussion of issues under the headings “Personal matters are academic matters”, “The division of household labor”, “Marital satisfaction” and “The relationship between the division of household labor and marital satisfaction”.

 The meeting was well attended by students and teaching staff from the Nishi Ikuta Campus. It also proved very useful as a study meeting for faculty students now starting to prepare their graduation theses.

【Report】TWCU – JWU Students-Alumnae Event 2016

 Date  :  8th July ,2016

 A gathering for students and alumnae jointly hosted by the Empowerment Center of Tokyo Woman’s Christian University and the JWU Research Institute for Women and Careers was held at the Omotesando Nasic Hall on July 8th, 2016. This was the second such event, following the inaugural one last year.

 First, Marketing Adviser and JWU alumna Keiko Uratani gave a lecture entitled “A Light in the ‘Direction’ Age”. Then the participants enjoyed a buffet-style networking party with drinks and appetizers provided.

 This event was originally devised in the hope that it would help to create alumnae networks after students at the two universities have graduated. We are happy to say that it was attended by about 50 participants and was a great success.

 In feedback given after the event, participants said they were glad of the valuable opportunity to hear the talk by Ms Uratani, and that it was very enjoyable to talk with people from a wide range of age groups.

 The feedback received will help us to plan more of these meaningful events in future. Notices will be posted on the JWU website, and we hope many of you will join us.

 Finally, our sincere thanks go to everyone who contributed to staging this event.

 

【Report】Symposium “What can Universities do to Help the Career Development of Women?”

 In the first session, a report was given on the results of the “Comprehensive Research Concerning Career Support for Women and the Roles of Universities” (2011-2015 Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology [MEXT] Strategic Research Base Development Program for Private Universities), which the Research Institute for Women and Careers (RIWAC) had been working on for the past five years. This research project had two central themes, and the research processes and outcomes were presented with regard to each of these themes.

 The first theme was “Reanalyzing surveys on postwar society related to women and careers, and publicizing and using archives of surveys regarding women.” A report was given on the use of archives of surveys regarding women by RIWAC, and another report was given on the results of analysis centering the areas of education and family based on a collection of approximately 1,500 data items. It was shown that social surveys reflect the circumstances and interests of societies.

 The second theme was “Research and development related to university-based reemployment assistance programs for women.” A report was given on the results of surveys related to women and careers that had been implemented for the purpose of program development, and on the results of developing and implementing reemployment assistance programs for women. The surveys revealed detailed information about the employment situation for highly-educated women and showed that employment assistance for woman up to now may well have been one-sided. It was also shown that in reemployment assistance programs for women that were newly developed in cooperation with Seiyu GK, the roles expected of universities at reemployment had been clarified.

 Following this, RIWAC Director Machiko Osawa provided a review, stating that the range of support for the career development of women that has been viewed as conventional up to now needs to be expanded; public support to promote active roles for female university graduates is lacking and thus involvement is needed in terms of education; it has been shown that in the future, systems should be built that fit recruitment needs on the part of companies and employment needs on the part of women, thus the key to vitalizing society as a whole is creating “second-chance companies” that provide many second chances. External evaluation committee members Ms.Teruko Ohno and Ms. Nami Otsuki then provided a critique regarding the implementation and outcomes of this project.

 During the second session, Professor Mary Brinton, Reischauer Institute Professor of Sociology and Department Chair, Harvard University, who had been invited to give a lecture, gave one entitled, “Second-Chance Labor Markets: Benefits for Women and Men.” Prof. Brinton pointed out that in the case of Japanese companies, people are generally employed at the same company for a long period of time, so, relative to the United States, changing jobs between companies is extremely rare, and this limits the bargaining power that workers have with regard to companies. If the possibility of moving to another company were higher, this would reduce the need for workers to give priority to what is convenient for the company in terms of work conditions and content. As such, it is necessary to shift from valuing lifetime employment to valuing the ability to change jobs. In order to achieve this, it will be important for individual workers to acquire skills that are portable. Prof. Brinton pointed out that education will become increasingly important in this respect.

 After this very stimulating lecture, there was a lively exchange of questions and opinions with the audience, which included an audience member asking about the specific types of education that Japanese universities can provide. The symposium was thus very fruitful.

 The minutes of this symposium are scheduled to be printed in the FY2016 RIWAC bulletin “Gendai Josei to Kyaria (Modern Women and Careers)” Issue No. 8.

【Report】Lecture: “Women and Work: Examples of Seiyu and Wal-Mart”

 A lecture meeting entitled “Women and Work” was held from 3 p.m. to 5 p.m., on Friday July 3, and Seiyu GK Exexutive Officers Hiromi Hirabayashi and Michiki Otsubo along with Human Resources Department Recruitment Manager Asuka Uchiyama are welcomed as lecturers.

 During the meeting, the guests spoke in great depth about their personal experiences, including their types of work experiences up to now, examples of hardships and how they overcame them, rewarding aspects of their work, and examples of support from family members. In addition, they described Seiyu’s personnel system and the company’s initiatives to promote active roles for women.

 Approximately 30 people, including students of the Japan Women’s University Recurrent Education Program as well as undergraduate and graduate students, attended the meeting and took part in a lively question and answer session.

 This lecture meeting was held as a kickoff event for the “Self Leadership Program” that will begin in September.

 A lecture meeting entitled “Women and Work” was held from 3 p.m. to 5 p.m., on Friday July 3, and, Seiyu GK Exexutive Officiers Hitomi Hirabayashi and Michiko Otsubo, along with Human Resources Department Recruitment Manager Asuka Uchiyama were welcomed as lecturers.

 During the meeting, the guests spoke in great depth about their personal experiences, including their types of work experiences up to now, examples of hardships and how they overcame them, rewarding aspects of their work, and examples of support from family members. In addition, they described Seiyu’s personnel system and the company’s initiatives to promote active roles for women.

  Approximately 30 people, including students of the Japan Women’s University Recurrent Education Program as well as undergraduate and graduate students, attended the meeting and took part in a lively question and answer session.

 This lecture meeting was held as a kickoff event for the “Self Leadership Program” that will begin in September.

【Report】“Women-only Gathering: Empowerment Center × Research Institute for Women and Careers”

 A “women-only gathering” jointly sponsored by the Tokyo Woman’s Christian University Empowerment Center and the Research Institute for Women and Careers was held from 7 p.m. on July 10, 2015, at Omotesando Nasic Hall.

 During the first session, personal stylist Junko Masachika gave a talk on “the power of clothing,” and during the second session, a casual networking meeting was held at which beverages and snacks were provided.

 The agenda started with ideas for how to help build cross-generational networks for school graduates. This was the first time that this type of event was held outside Japan Women’s University, but this meant the number of attendees reached the maximum capacity of 100, and the event was a great success.

 The participants provided various comments regarding the gathering such as, “The event got me to start thinking about the power of clothing,” and “This was a valuable opportunity to speak with people from a wide range of age groups.”

 Based on the opinions that were received, thought will be given to the planning of more of these meaningful gatherings in the future. Information will be provided on the Japan Women’s University website, and we hope that you will participate.

 In closing, thank you very much to everyone who helped out with this event.  

 Increasing attention has been paid to the advancement of women in society in relation to measures to cope with the labor shortages associated with population decline in Japan. Nevertheless, it seems that in reality many challenges still exist related to the employment of women.

 On this occasion, the Research Institute for Women and Careers (RIWAC) invited Professor Mary Brinton, who serves as Reischauer Institute Professor of Sociology and Department Chair at Harvard University, to give a report on findings obtained from a survey on what Japanese companies think about childcare leave and the employment of women.

 Discussions took place regarding the question, “The context of the market and norms related to gender roles have an impact on employment-side assessments regarding workers who have taken childcare leave. What effects does the implementation of childcare leave have on these assessments?” Interviews with personnel affairs managers at 25 large companies revealed that from the company’s perspective, women who take childcare leave are particularly capable persons who are “ideal workers” (who have made a major commitment to the company), the company would like for them to be ideal mothers, and it is possible that long-term childcare leaves result in subordinate positions for women within companies and the division of labor by gender role within households.

 After this report, the audience engaged in a lively exchange of questions and opinions. It was apparent that there was a high level of interest in the views of companies regarding childcare leave at this study group meeting, one which had not been particularly clear previously.  

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